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Monday, February 10, 2020 | History

3 edition of Ends and means found in the catalog.

Ends and means

Aldous Huxley

Ends and means

an enquiry into the nature of ideals and into the methods employed for their realization.

by Aldous Huxley

  • 108 Want to read
  • 8 Currently reading

Published by Chatto & Windus in London .
Written in English

    Subjects:
  • Social problems

  • Edition Notes

    At head of title: Aldous Huxley.

    The Physical Object
    Pagination3 p.l., 355, [1] p.
    Number of Pages355
    ID Numbers
    Open LibraryOL16610854M

    On Waterloo: Clausewitz, Wellington, and the Campaign of The enemy's outlay in strength lies in the wear and tear of his forces, consequently in the destruction of them on our part, and in the loss of provinces, consequently the conquest of them by us. The highest ends are ends in themselves, while subordinate ends may only be means to higher ends. The same is true for Machiavelli. For instance, a person who plays the flute well is a good flutist.

    It is a mixture of Backward and forward search technique. Of course, for most of us this theory is difficult to square with our desire to get along with, and care for, other people; especially those within our immediate family or friend group. Such a technique is called Means-Ends Analysis. However, a good person will always behave in a virtuous manner. But this order is by no means necessary, and on that account it also does not always take place.

    Everyone agrees that the supreme Good is happiness, but people disagree over what constitutes happiness. But what if there never is an end? Plainly not to absolute passivity, for mere endurance would not be fighting: and the defensive is an activity by which so much of the enemy's power must be destroyed, that he must give up his object. Politics is not a precise science, since what is best for one person may not be best for another.


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Ends and means book

Now, in the combat all the action is directed to the destruction of the enemy, or rather of his fighting powers, for this lies in the conception of combat.

In the latter case, the destruction of the army is the real effectual action, and the taking of the provinces only a consequence of it; to take them before the army had been defeated would always be looked upon only as a necessary evil.

Here again, on account of the various significations of these means, so likewise it will be found that neither of them will be identical in its signification, in all cases if the objects are different. All, therefore, that relates to forces of war—all that is connected with their creation, maintenance, and application, belongs to military activity.

Frederick the Great during the Seven Years' War was never strong enough to overthrow the Austrian monarchy; and if he had tried to do so after the fashion of Charles the Twelfth, he would inevitably have had to succumb himself. The immediate object is here neither the conquest of the enemy's territory nor the defeat of his armed force, but merely to do him damage in a general way.

It would, therefore, be a great mistake to draw from it the conclusion that a blind dash must always gain the victory over skill and caution. For instance, a person who plays the flute well is a good flutist.

The reason why the object deduced from the conception of war is not adapted in general to real war, lies in the difference between the two, which is discussed in the preceding chapter. So when federal agents came knocking on his door, he had to make a decision. Finally, going beyond the mere scholarly work of forming a compelling intellectual argument, Camp makes the situation applicable.

The ends people understand that in this world, in this system we're born into, anything that gets you what you want is a good thing. According to what we have seen in the foregoing chapter, war must always set itself free from the strict law of logical necessity, and seek aid from the calculation of Ends and means book and as this is so much the more the case, the more the war has a bias that way, from the circumstances out of which it has arisen—the smaller its motives are and the excitement it has raised—so it is also conceivable how out of this calculation of probabilities even motives to peace may arise.

Successive victories encouraged the authorities in India to expand the campaign to aim at Baghdad. As protection of the country is that one of these objects to which the military force is destined, therefore the natural order is that first of all this force should be destroyed; then the country subdued; and through the effect of these two results, as well as the position we then hold, the enemy should be forced to make peace.

But even if this is the case, still with the conclusion of peace a number of sparks are always extinguished, which would have smouldered on quietly, and the excitement of the passions abates, because all those whose minds are disposed to peace, of which in all nations and under all circumstances, there is always a great number, turn themselves away completely from the road to resistance.

What branch of human affairs is there in which these sparks of individual spirit have not made their appearance, flying over all formal considerations? If we ask first of all for the aim upon which the whole war is to be directed, in order that it may be the right means for the attainment of the political object, we shall find that it is just as variable as are the political object and the particular circumstances of the war.

We limit ourselves to pointing this out, as it would be pedantry to attempt to reduce such influences into classes. See more related quotes. If we attack the enemy's army, it is a very different thing whether we intend to follow up the first blow with a succession of others until the whole force is destroyed, or whether we mean to content ourselves with a victory to shake the enemy's feeling of security, to convince him of our superiority, and to instil into him a feeling of apprehension about the future.

If the idea of combat lies at the foundation of every application of armed power, then also the application of armed force in general, is nothing more than the determining and arranging a certain number of combats.

But sometimes it is possible that an operator cannot be applied to the current state. Get a brand new article like this in your inbox every Friday. Read on to gain a deeper understanding of this philosophy, its origins, and examples of how we continue, rightly or wrongly, to rationalize its thinking in the modern world.

This question has been asked for millennia, with the resulting answers rarely perfect in their finite form. On the other hand, if the ends justify the means—if your ethical interest focuses on the consequences of an act instead of what you actually do—then the ethics change. As war is no act of blind passion, but is dominated over by the political object, therefore the value of that object determines the measure of the sacrifices by which it is to be purchased.

It is a story. But what if there never is an end? We are once more brought back upon it, and we shall be able to get an insight into the value which must necessarily be accorded to it. Integrity means doing the right thing, right now—even when the short-term consequences may be unpleasant.

The MEA analysis process centered on the evaluation of the difference between the current state and goal state. Do you agree or disagree that the end justifies the means?

How far now can this negative mode of proceeding be carried?The book clarifies these elements of conduct and shows how the triple-barreled notion of treatment of persons—whether merely as means or as ends in themselves—is ethically important. Given this wide-ranging account of treatment, it shows much about the scope of moral judgment and the dimensions of moral responsibility.

Pacifism is still an important topic today, as terrorism and dictatorial states abound. Many will find solace in Ends and Means, while others will find the book only a case study of the relationship of ethics to sylvaindez.com Huxley examines common issues in a unique fashion.

"The means-and-ends moralists, constantly obsessed with the ethics of the means used by the Have-Nots against the Haves, should search themselves as to their real political position.

Ends And Means

In fact, they are passive — but real — allies of the Haves. The most unethical of all means is the non. BOOK 1 • CHAPTER 2. Ends and Means in War. HAVING in the foregoing chapter ascertained the complicated and variable nature of war, we shall now occupy ourselves in examining into the influence which this nature has upon the end and means in war.

If we ask first of all for the aim upon which the whole war is to be directed, in order that it may be the right means for the attainment of the. Sep 07,  · A great deal of evil can be done in the name of benevolence.

And this points to the warning sign of moral compromise we will consider next: a belief that the ends justify the means. Moral philosophers differentiate between two basic types of ethical systems: those that rely on rules to make moral decisions, and.

And in the book of essays Ends and Means (an Enquiry Into the Nature of Ideals and Into the Methods Employed for Their Realization) by Aldous Huxley, which was first published inthe famed author of Brave New World, spoke of war, religion, ethics, and nationalism, topics of which he believed end justifies the means thinking had permeated.